Construction input from rapid growth to stable development
In 1978, China's fixed asset investment in municipal public facilities reached 1.2 billion yuan, accounting for 1.8% of the total fixed asset investment in the whole society. After 2000, it began to exceed 200 billion yuan and entered a period of rapid growth. In particular, under the national investment of 4 trillion yuan in 2009, the investment realized two consecutive jumps, from 900 billion yuan in 2008 to 1.2 trillion yuan in 2009, and then to 1.6 trillion yuan in 2010, accounting for 6.3% of the total fixed asset investment in the same period. After 10 years of rapid investment growth, the construction of municipal public facilities has been basically completed. After 2012, the investment began to enter a stable growth channel. In recent years, the investment has been basically stable at about 2 trillion yuan, accounting for a continuous decline in the proportion of the total fixed asset investment in the whole society in the same period. In 2016, the total fixed asset investment in municipal public facilities nationwide was 2.1 trillion yuan, accounting for 3.4% of the total fixed asset investment in the same period.
Construction investment and financing have been diversified, and private capital has become an important force in municipal construction
At present, the investment in municipal public facilities construction has been gradually expanded from the single government financial input before 1978 to domestic loans, foreign capital utilization, bond issuance and enterprise self-financing and other channels. At present, the investment in municipal infrastructure construction has formed a diversified situation, with government investment, bank loans and private capital as the main forces, accounting for about 85% of the total investment. At the same time, compared with cities, it is more difficult for counties to obtain bank loans and mainly rely on self-raised funds, which is one of the reasons why the municipal public facilities construction in counties is far behind the municipal construction in terms of both the total amount of construction and the growth rate. Private investment has become an important force in municipal construction. By the end of June 2017, China had 13,554 inbound PPP projects with an investment of 16.4 trillion yuan, and 2021 contracted projects with a total investment of 3.3 trillion yuan. Among them, 4,732 municipal engineering projects have been put into storage, with an investment of 4.4 trillion yuan, 879 contracted projects have been landed, and the investment of 1.3 trillion yuan. The number of landed projects and the investment amount rank first in the subdivided industries, and there are many PPP projects in the subdivided fields of sewage treatment, municipal roads, water supply, garbage treatment and pipe network. In the future, how to make full use of the market mechanism to allow private capital to participate in municipal engineering investment and financing projects, how to encourage private capital to participate in, eliminate private capital worries, how to establish a diversified exit mechanism, and so on are the problems to be solved in the future.
Construction capacity has been significantly enhanced, but the gap between cities and counties is still large
Around for more than 30 years of reform and opening-up, accelerate the construction of municipal public utility reform of investment system, actively open up channels of funds, increase financial input, one after another to build a large number of water supply, gas, heating, roads, public transport, sewage treatment and solid waste treatment, park green space and other projects, facilities service level increased significantly, greatly enhance the city function. In the past 15 years, the data of municipal public facilities construction have increased several times. Among them, the construction of rail transit and sewage treatment plant grows especially fast. The length of completed rail transit has increased from 200 km in 2002 to 3,586 km in 2016, with an annual compound growth rate of 23%. The urban sewage treatment rate increased from 40.0% in 2002 to 93.4% in 2016. However, generally speaking, there is still a big gap in the construction capacity of municipal public facilities in cities and counties. In the future, with the saturation of municipal public facilities in cities, the construction of municipal public facilities in counties will also become one of the directions for the regional development of municipal engineering enterprises.
New steps have been taken in the investment structure, and the construction of rail transit and underground pipe corridors will be the focus
In quite a long period of time, the focus of municipal public facilities construction is to solve the problem of water supply, the investment structure is single, the industry development is unbalanced. During the period from the tenth five-year plan to the twelfth five-year plan, the rapid economic and social development of cities promoted the development of municipal public facilities construction, and the construction investment was increased, especially in water supply, heat supply, public transportation and other aspects, and the investment structure was greatly improved. Road and bridge construction is the largest part of municipal public facilities, municipal road and bridge investment in 2016 nearly 1 trillion yuan. Rail transit is the sector with the most investment potential in the future municipal public facilities construction. In the past three years (2016-2018), China's rail transit investment will reach 1.6 trillion yuan, with an average annual investment of more than 500 billion yuan. During the period of "much starker choices-and graver consequences-in", our country will be the new urban rail transit operation mileage of 3000 kilometers above, municipal public facilities construction investment, the rail transit proportion is likely to increase from 23% in 2016 to 40% or even 50%, become the city's biggest investment in the construction of municipal utilities area, will attract a large number of construction enterprises to enter the field. As urban waterlogging problem increasingly prominent, the underground pipe rack, sponge urban concepts such as the heat increased again, 2015 successively issued by the general office of the state council on the promotion of the construction of urban underground pipe gallery guidance ", "about promoting the sponge guidance of urban construction, in 2017 the government work report also pointed out that to start construction of urban underground pipe above 2000 km, start to eliminate the city key YiLao District period of three years, pushing forward the construction of the sponge city urban there are both" face "and more" lining ". At the end of the 12th five-year plan, the total length of urban drainage pipes in China is about 500,000 km, while the length of underground pipe corridors is less than 1,000 km. Considering the single kilometer cost of hundreds of millions of yuan, the long-term investment space of underground pipe corridors is huge. During the 13th five-year plan period, China will build more than 8,000 kilometers of underground comprehensive pipe corridors for trunk lines and branch lines. Based on the cost of 100 million yuan per kilometer, the total investment scale will be about 800 billion yuan, with an average annual scale of 150 billion yuan. In the context of trillions of investment space in the future, enterprises with underground construction capacity and municipal design capacity are expected to fully benefit. Sponge city construction will drive a new round of urban construction boom. According to the state council's guidance on promoting sponge city construction, more than 20% of the urban built-up areas will meet the sponge city construction requirements by 2020, and more than 80% of the urban built-up areas will meet the target requirements by 2030. At the end of 2016, China's urban built-up area was 54,000 square kilometers. According to the annual compound growth rate of 3%, China's urban built-up area was estimated to be about 60,000 square kilometers by 2020 and 80,000 square kilometers by 2030. According to the ministry's estimate of 100 million to 150 million yuan per square kilometer of sponge city construction, the total investment will reach 1.2 to 1.8 trillion yuan by 2020. By 2030, the total investment will reach 6.4 to 9.6 trillion yuan.
This article is excerpted from 360 architecture